New York Judge Holds 4 Year Old Can Be Sued in Bike Accident

It’s all over the news right now: The story of a 4 year old child racing her bike with training wheels down a Manhattan sidewalk, who hits 87 year old Claire Menagh, who falls, breaks her hip, and dies three weeks later. The story was first reported in the New York Law Journal yesterday (sub required) and in today’s New York Times.

And the essence of the story is this: The mother who was watching her was sued, as was the child. And Justice Paul Wooten has ruled, while the suit is still in its beginning stage, that the case may proceed.

Since the story has now gone viral (it was at the top of Yahoo’s news page), I won’t bother giving a recap, but if you Google the news for “Claire Menagh” you’ll see what’s going on. (Same too with blogs.)

So I’ll cut to the chase: The lawsuit won’t be about taking away the kid’s future Tooth Fairy money or training wheels, it will be about the homeowners’ insurance policy and the extent to which it covers the mother who was watching the child and/or the child.

So this is the law on “negligent supervision” in New York that will, when all the lawyer-talking is done, be read to the jury and govern the ultimate outcome of the case (strictly from a legal perspective) from the perspective of parental negligence. This comes from the Pattern Jury Instructions for New York (PJI 2:261), and is the general language that would then get tailored to the facts of the particular case:

PJI 2:261 Vicarious Responsibility—Family Relationship—Liability of Parent for Tort of Child—Failure to Restrain

A parent is not responsible for the act of (his, her) child, but is responsible for (his, her) own failure to use reasonable care to restrain the child from so viciously conducting (himself, herself) as to (intentionally harm, create an unreasonable risk of harm to) others, provided the parent has knowledge of the child’s propensity toward such conduct. Reasonable care means that degree of care that a reasonably prudent parent would use under the same circumstances. Propensity toward vicious conduct means a habitual tendency to do an act that might endanger the person or property of others.

If you find that the infant defendant habitually assaulted and beat up others, that (defendant-parent) had knowledge of the propensity to do so, and that (defendant-parent) failed to use reasonable care to restrain the infant defendant, you will find that (defendant-parent) was negligent. If, however, you find that the infant defendant did not habitually assault others, or that though (he, she) did, (defendant-parent) did not have knowledge of that fact, or that(defendant-parent) did use such care as a reasonably prudent parent would under the circumstances to restrain the infant, you will find that (defendant-parent) was not negligent.

The comments in the PJI reference a similar case of a child riding on a sidewalk, back in 1937: Steinberg v. Cauchois. The jury found for the plaintiffs but the appellate court tossed the verdict on the particular facts of that case (“The parent is not liable, merely by reason of his or her relationship, for the torts of the child.”). The court then lists 5 categories of potential liability…and the 5th one seems to govern here (though #3 is also possible, depending on the “known propensities” of the child):

There are situations in which the parent may be held liable:

(1) Where the relationship of master and servant exists and the child is acting within the scope of his authority accorded by the parent;

(2) where a parent is negligent in intrusting to the child an instrument which, because of its nature, use, and purpose, is so dangerous as to constitute, in the hands of the child, an unreasonable risk to others;

(3) where a parent is negligent in intrusting to the child an instrumentality which, though not necessarily a dangerous thing of itself, is likely to be put to a dangerous use because of the known propensities of the child;

(4) where the parent’s negligence consists entirely of his failure reasonably to restrain the child from vicious conduct imperilling others, when the parent has knowledge of the child’s propensity toward such conduct; and

(5) where the parent participates in the child’s tortious act by consenting to it or by ratifying it later and accepting the fruits.

Does the underlying suit have merit? Only the facts will tell, and this case hasn’t even gone through discovery yet. If the parent was permitting her child to race down the sidewalk, then she may well be found to consenting to the conduct.

But this case clearly has raised some uncomfortable issues for many with respect to the concept of a 4-year old being sued. Regardless of where you stand on that, the underlying law that is set forth above is likely the crux of the legal matter regarding the parent being potentially vicariously liable for the conduct of the child.


Around the blogosphere we go for various opinions and rants:

The Negligent 4-Year-Old (Volokh @ Volokh)

4-Year-Old Speed RAcer Gets Sued (Mystel @ Above the Law)

4-Year-Old Not Too Young to Get Sued, Manhattan Judge Rules (Jones @ WSJ Law Blog)

About that four-year-old sued for negligence… (J.DeVoyThe Legal Satyricon)


13 Responses Leave a comment

  • Mike Bryant 2010.10.29 at 23:53 | Quote

    Just another way direct action could get the real parties into the case. Love the Insurance companies hiding behind the 4 year old.

  • Rosemary 2010.11.1 at 07:52 | Quote

    Riveting. In India, insurance law isn’t as highly developed. Even the police would just dismiss it as a case of “accidental death.” Nor would the deceased’s LRs dream of suing a 4-year-old. They would dismiss it as “karma”. We had an incident where a neighbor’s dog being walked, slipped his leash, ran up to an 80-year-old who got entangled in the leash, fell and subsequently died. Not a word out of anybody. I don’t know whether to call this a good thing or not.

  • [Ad hominem attack in name deleted by editor] 2010.11.2 at 14:46 | Quote

    Mike, I love the greedy family members trying to get a load of cash out of what was obviously an accident by suing a 4 year old kid.

  • Eric Turkewitz 2010.11.2 at 15:49 | Quote

    I love the greedy family members trying to get a load of cash out of what was obviously an accident by suing a 4 year old kid.

    You wrote “greedy,” but I’m sure you must have meant distraught. Someone did die after all.

  • P W Dennis 2010.11.2 at 19:41 | Quote

    Wrong Eric , I think the word greedy is very applicable. The economic loss suffered by the family is nil. The emotional loss is far too subjective to ever be decently quantified, hence the appropriateness of caps on non-economic damages. I do feel sorry for the family (at least I think I do – unfortunately there are far too many parents who really don’t give a ‘good golly Miss Molly’ for their kids) but if no amount of money can ever make up for the emotional loss of a loved one, then no amount of money should be awarded. This case here screams of the family trying to cash in

    As an aside, I can see making an award for the costs of grief counseling for family members who feel the need for it

  • P W Dennis 2010.11.2 at 19:43 | Quote

    Sorry hit the submit button by mistake – meant to add , similarly too many of the elderly are abandoned and neglected by their offspring unless the whiff of possible money is occasioned by the death of the aged one

  • Mike Bryant 2010.11.2 at 21:33 | Quote

    So since a death is so devastating , it has no value? Makes no sense at all. Nor is it the law. Beyond that you are making up facts to support your position about the family. Sounds like the facts of the case really don’t matter to you.

  • Eric Turkewitz 2010.11.2 at 21:42 | Quote

    The economic loss suffered by the family is nil.

    Maybe yes, maybe no. The decision only dealt with a motion to dismiss at the outset of litigation due to the age of the child. So it is pure guesswork as to what she provided, either by way of economic support or guidance.

    The emotional loss is far too subjective to ever be decently quantified, hence the appropriateness of caps on non-economic damages.

    You can’t recover for grief in New York, one of the great travesties of our state. But again, the extent of damages is not part of the decision.

    I do feel sorry for the family

    You wouldn’t know it by anything you wrote.

    Should I assume, by the way, that this wasn’t your mother that died?

  • P W Dennis 2010.11.3 at 04:35 | Quote

    Eric – the notion of money as a magic salve for grief is nauseating as is the notion that sympathy is best expressed in dollar bills .

    I believe that economic damages can and should be pursued, and while I support significant tort and legal reform (they are not one and the same) I do NOT support caps on economic damages

    I have lost many relatives over the years including a grandson who (probably) died as a result of medical malpractice. The family sought some money for grief counseling but little more than that, and resolved the matter without litigation

  • Eric Turkewitz 2010.11.3 at 12:52 | Quote

    Eric – the notion of money as a magic salve for grief is nauseating …

    I’ve never heard anybody claim it was a magic salve. You’re knocking down an argument that doesn’t exist.

  • P W Dennis 2010.11.3 at 13:28 | Quote

    No Eric – they usually phrase it differently

Comments are closed.

The New York Personal Injury Law Blog is sponsored by its creator, Eric Turkewitz of The Turkewitz Law Firm. The blog might be considered a form of attorney advertising in accordance with New York rules going into effect February 1, 2007 (22 NYCRR 1200.1, et. seq.) As of July 14, 2008, became an advertiser, as you can see in the sidebar. does not control the editorial content of the blog in any way.

Throughout the blog as it develops, you may see examples of cases we have handled, or cases from others, that are used for illustrative purposes. Since all cases are different, and legal authority may change from year to year, it is important to remember that prior results in any particular case do not guarantee or predict similar outcomes with respect to any future matter, including yours, in which any lawyer or law firm may be retained.

Some of the commentary may be become outdated. Some might be a minority opinion, or simply wrong. No reader should consider this site (or any other) to be authoritative, and if a legal issue is presented, the reader should contact an attorney of his or her own choosing for advice.

Finally, we are not responsible for the comments of others that may be added to this site.